5.C.1.b v - Cremation

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)


Short description

NFR Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
5.C.1.b v Cremation CS NS D, CS no key category


Emissions from cremation are not a key source and of minor priority. Since March 1997, a national legal ordinance for cremation plants nationwide is in force (27. BImSchV).

Activity data

Activity data for this category are based on data from the statistics of the "Bundesverband Deutscher Bestatter e.V."[1].

Emission factors

Emission factors used are default values from the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 [2] as well as new national data for POPs from the research project "POP- und Hg-Emissionen aus abfallwirtschaftlichen Anlagen" - Teilvorhaben zum Globalvorhaben „Überprüfung des Standes der Technik der Emissionen prioritärer Schadstoffe für einzelne Industriebranchen (Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und abfallwirtschaftliche Anlagen)“ [3] .

In 2018 the TERT noted that the German Hg EF is 100 times smaller than the default value proposed in the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the Cd and Pb EF are 1000 times smaller than the default values proposed in the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook. However, the EF for Pb and Cd are based on national expert judgement: assumption that a) the emissions behave similarly to dust and b) the dust limit value of the air pollution control specification (27th BImSchV) is complied with (to be confirmed on the basis of the new measurement data from 5 crematoria with different exhaust gas cleaning systems). The Hg EF was calculated on the basis of the German report on “OSPAR Recommendation 2003/4 on controlling the dispersal of mercury from crematoria", but is under evaluation.

Nevertheless a current analysis of measured data could decrease the country specific EF for POP further. The complete evaluation and transparent explanation is possible after finalization of a research Project [4].

EF for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 derive from the research study "Studie zur Korngrößenverteilung (PM10 und PM2.5) von Staubemissionen" [5].


Recalculations of 2016 figures have been carried out compared to the 2018 Submission due to a correction of AD calculation.

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

It is planned to test the suitability of further emission factors based on EMEP-Guidebook 2016 and to take into account the latest measurement results. It will also be checked whether it is possible to specify cremations as masses.

1. annual personal message from Stephan Neuser (contact URL: https://www.bestatter.de/verband/ansprechpartner/)
2. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
3. Stöcklein; Gass; Suritsch: "POP- und Hg-Emissionen aus abfallwirtschaftlichen Anlagen", Teilvorhaben zum Globalvorhaben „Überprüfung des Standes der Technik der Emissionen prioritärer Schadstoffe für einzelne Industriebranchen (Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und abfallwirtschaftliche Anlagen)“; URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/378/publikationen/texte_38_2016_pop-und_hg-emissionen_aus_abfallwirtschaftlichen_anlagen.pdf; UBA-Texte 38/2016; im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, April 2016.
4. FKZ 3716 53 3021 „Umweltrelevanz und Stand der Technik bei Einäscherungsanlagen“ (Environmental relevance and state of the art for cremation plants)
5. Dreiseidler, A.; Baumbach, G.; Pregger, T.; Obermeier, A. (1999): Studie zur Korngrößenverteilung (< PM10 und < PM2,5) von Staubemissionen. UBA-Forschungsbericht 297 44 853, Umweltbundesamt Berlin (Study on particle size distribution (< PM10 and < PM2,5) of dust emissions)
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